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- Introduction of TOPIC

- Statement of need and/or gap in literature

- statement of theoretical framework used and reason for adaptation

-brief statement of literature review used (specially needed when establishing research problem)

- statement of methodology and (hypothetical) results (this will be revised as you proceed with your research)

- Contributions of research to the field (significance of the study)

-outline of the paper




Writing your Introduction: Criteria for Assessment


1.          Was the field established?

n      claiming centrality (why this field of study is important) and/or

n      moving from general to specific and/or

n      reviewing relevant items of previous research

2.          Was the research problem clearly defined?

n      indicating a gap or

n      raising a question or

n      continuing a previously developed line of inquiry or

n      counter-claiming (disagreeing with an existing/accepted approach)


n      What is the context of this problem? In what situation or environment can this problem be observed? (Background)

n      Why is this research important? Who will benefit? Why do we need to know this? Why does this situation, method, model or piece of equipment need to be improved? (Rationale)

n      What is it we don’t know? What is the gap in our knowledge this research will fill? What needs to be improved? (Problem Statement)

n      What steps will the researcher take to try and fill this gap or improve the situation? (Objectives)


n      Is there any aspect of the problem the researcher will not discuss? Is the study limited to a specific geographical area or to only certain aspects of the situation? (Scope)

n      Is there any factorcondition or circumstance that prevents the researcher from achieving all his/her objectives? (Limitations)

n      In considering his/her method, model, formulation or approach, does the researcher take certain conditions, states, requirements for granted? Are there certain fundamental conditions or states the researcher takes to be true? (Assumptions)

3.          Was there any proposed solution/s?

n      outlining purpose/setting objectives and/or

n      announcing present research (methodology) and

n      announcing principal findings (results) and

n      indicating the structure of the research


Reference: http://www.languages.ait.ac.th/

Article Source Link: http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/Dec_2007_ji&st&cs.php



Overcoming Affective Barriers for Continuous Language Learning


Julide Inozu, Seden Tuyan and Emine Cakır Surmeli

Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey


1. Introduction


Together with the spread of English as an international language, the importance of English education has been widely recognized in countries where English is learned as a foreign language. Turkey, being one of these countries, has a great number of universities that offer programs in which the medium of instruction is in English. In order to equip learners with the skills to cope with the demands of such programs in terms of language proficiency, preparatory language programs are given before students start to study in their departments, as in our case. In the institution in which we work, there is an intensive skills-based language program aimed at developing both linguistic competence and language learning awareness of students.


Our program aims to equip learners with skills to take active roles in planning and executing language learning activities both during the formal instruction program and in further semesters in their departments where they are required to improve English either entirely on their own or with minimal support. However, not all of our learners are able to extend their language learning studies beyond the language program in their preparatory year. Within our context (monolingual society) where English is a content course, where the teacher and the school are perceived as the only sources of foreign language learning, where teachers like to be in the center of the learning process and where learners are teacher-dependent, learners find it difficult to continue their act of learning both in and outside the formal school setting. Often they gradually lose their language skills and forget what they once knew.


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