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Page history last edited by Aiden Yeh 10 years, 4 months ago


A paragraph can be paraphrased  by  extracting each idea in each of the 

But the most important thing is "putting the main idea into your own words."
  (source: http://www.unm.edu/~quadl/college_learning/paraphrasing.html)


"Natural languages follow various rules and it is reasonably clear
that humans inherit an innate cognitive capacity to learn these rules.
As a result of normal maturation, this capacity of language  acquisition
reaches a stage of 'readiness' before  the age of two,  and continues on
through  the childhood years until puberty.  The actual nature of this
universal readiness for language is still unknown.  Some scientists think 
that humans are preprogrammed with the basic rules of language, but others 
believe that humans are innately prepared to learn these rules."

(1) It is likely that the capacity to learn language rules is innate. 
(2) Readiness to learn language depends upon maturation. 
(3) The period of language readiness is from age 2 to about 14. 
(4) No one knows for sure what the nature of this readiness is. 
(5) It could be that language rules are instinctive. 
(6) Or it could be that humans are predisposed to learn a language. 

"What do people gain from language development?  Verbal 
communication offers many advantages: greater ability  to describe one's  
experiences, greater ability for abstract thought, greater ability to 
express complex ideas to others.   Combined with memory, verbal 
communication provides the basis for the accumulation of knowledge.  
In sum, our ability to cope with large amounts of information is 
dependent on our possession of verbal language system."

Paraphrased work:      Language development enables a person to handle a lot of information 
efficiently.  This includes describing experiences, expressing ideas, and 
even thinking.Language helps organize knowledge.

Example of good paraphrase:



Original Source:

A key factor in explaining the sad state of American education can be found in overbureaucratization, which is seen in the compulsion to consolidate our public schools into massive factories and to increase to mammoth size our universities even in underpopulated states. The problem with bureaucracies is that they have to work hard and long to keep from substituting self-serving survival and growth for their original primary objective. Few succeed. Bureaucracies have no soul, no memory, and no conscience. If there is a single stumbling block on the road to the future, it is the bureaucracy as we know it.

Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture, Anchor Publishing, 1977, p. 219




In his book, Beyond Culture, Edward T. Hall discusses the problems posed by the increasing bureaucratization of American educational institutions. Hall maintains that overbureaucratization is one of the key factors governing the state of education in America today. He points to the tendency of bureaucracies to promote their own growth and survival first and foremost, and observes that few overcome that tendency. He believes that this is responsible for the fact that many public schools bear a closer resemblance to factories than to educational institutions. In Hall’s words, “Bureaucracies have no soul, no memory, and no conscience.”


The writer has avoided using too many of Hall’s key phrases and clearly attributes his ideas to him without distorting their meaning.

Source: http://gsi.berkeley.edu/teachingguide/misconduct/exercise.html

TASK FOR 10-25-2012


Create a page on your wiki called 'Paraphrase Exercise'


Paraphrase one-two paragraphs from your academic reference. Include the original text and its weblink.


Follow the samples above



Useful links on paraphrasing:





The University of Wisconsin’s "Successful vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases" & the very practical and helpful advice: 

"How to Paraphrase a Source"


"Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words" from Purdue’s Online Writing Lab

Indiana University’s "Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It"


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